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Technical Term
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Bar Chart
On a bar chart the x-axis records the time whereas the y-axis price.
Blow Offs
When the markets are near at the top, the prices of stocks begin to rally sharply accompanied with heavy volumes. It is also seen that the open interest is reduced at blow offs.
Bottom Reversal day
When the stock market is near the end of the downtrend, near the last after the new low is made and next day the market closes higher.
Breakaway gap
The breakaway gap gives the first hint of the change of the trend of the stock market/ gold and silver market. Once the market tired everyone and the market has stayed there for a long time, which can be seen by a major saucer formation-taking place or an inverted head and shoulder formation-taking place. Suddenly the stock or the index breaks a major trend line or the neckline of the inverted head and shoulder and moves up on heavy volumes. It is seen that breakaway gaps are not currently filled easily. Though at times the stock takes a rest before moving up again. When markets are at the top, the breakaway gaps are the first signs of the starting of the fall. On the top formation, a falling saucer formation or a head and shoulder can be seen.
Broadening Formation
It is a bearish formation normally wherein two trend lines initially go in different ways.
Bull Trap
It is a term referring to wherein the stocks suddenly move up and starts falling with the result that the investing public is trapped. Technical formation generally speak of bull and bears trying to trap each other.
Bear market
A bear market is where the prices are falling, sellers outnumber the buyers, market sentiment is down and presence of any other negative sentiments in the market. Patterns of market charts forms lower bottoms and lower tops. The bear market is characterized by three phases namely:
1st Distribution Period: this phase starts in the later part of a bull phase (market). In this phase the intelligent investors sense that the current Bull Run has overrun and is due for a correction (valuations are high), so they unload their holdings at higher valuations. 
2nd Panic Phase: in this phase the number of sellers exceeds number of buyers hence indicating a start of downtrend. Prices begin to fall at a fast pace, as most investors want to quit their positions in a falling stock. Then starts secondary recovery of the prices in the form of sideways movement of share, this recovery may last for a long period of time.
3rd Phase: in this phase those investors who did not sell their holding throughout the above two stages or those who had purchased the shares during the panic phase finding the prices cheaper from their top levels, start selling their stakes. 
The bear phase ends when every bad news, the worst to be expected, etc. has been discounted in the price of scrip.
Bear Spread
This strategy is adopted by an investor who visualizes the market going down and he buys a put option with a higher strike price and sells a lower strike price put option. Both options have the same expiry date. Example :- if an investor foresees the Index going down and assuming that Nifty Index is at 2000, then he buys a put 2000 and sell a put 1950 with a result that his investment is also less as well as he gets a profit if the market goes down.  In Bear Spread one can also sell a call of lower strike price and buy a call of higher strike price.  Example:- here you buy a call 2000 and sell a call 1950.
Bull Spread
It can be created by buying a call of lower strike price and selling a call of higher Strike Price.  Both calls should have the same expiry date.  Example:- If Nifty Index is at 2000 then one can buy a call strike 2000 and sell call 2050.  So if the market goes up you have a profit.  Similarly, one can short a higher strike price put and buy a lower strike price put.
Beta
It measures the correlation of an individual stock against the movement of the index.
Bid Price
This is the best market price a buyer is ready to buy at.
Book building
Book building is a process of deciding the issue price of an IPO. It is used at the time of offering the shares to public through an IPO. It is a process of pricing an IPO, in which a band of price is provided to the prospective bidders. Every investor is asked to state his bid price and the number of shares for which he is applying. After the closure of issue (date of receiving bids) the company with the help of its book runner (merchant banker) decides upon the price at which the shares will be issued to the public. These days most of issues to primary market are through book building process.
BSE Sensex
It is a group of top 30 stocks in BSE (Bombay Stock Exchange). The Index is computed on the basis of market capitalization weighted Index method. It is based on free float of equities in the market. Dow- Jones is also composed of 30 stocks.
Butterfly Spread

This is an option strategy in which neither the profit is much nor the risk is much. In this strategy, there will be three different strike prices.  It can be created by buying two call options, one with low strike price and the other with comparatively high strike price, and selling two call options having the strike price which lies in the middle of above two strike prices.  It should be near to the prevailing stock price.  In this spread we can expect profit if stock price remains close to the strike price of options which we have sold.
Example:- If Nifty Index is 2000 then you may buy a call 1950 and another call 2050 and sell two calls of 2000.

 
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