Producing Regions | Varieties,
Grading and Quality of Rice | Rice (as a
nutrient) | Rice in India, and in the world
| Trading (Rice Futures) | Contract
Rice is the most important food crop grown in the
world. It is the most extensively grown. Rice
is an annual crop plant, growing about 3-5 feet tall,
and sometimes even taller. The origin of the word
rice comes from the Tamil word arisi. Rice is a
semi-aquatic crop. Rice belongs to the family of
the genus Oryzae. Rice can
be grown anywhere between sea level to an
altitude of 1000 feet above the sea level. The
climatic conditions for rice are between 21 C to
With reference from
ancient manuscripts and writings, India has been
know to have started growing rice. Some say, it
originated in India and Burma and others say in
South India. But it is believed that rice was
originally cultivated in China (around 2500 B.C.).
Rice is said to have fed the most people over the
longest time period than any other pulse, cereal or
90% of rice grown commercially is consumed
directly by humans. Rice is the staple food of
more than half of the world’s population. Asia
and Pacific regions contribute 90% of the whole
world’s produce. The locals of the area consume
almost all. Rice cultivation in India is the
largest in the world whereas it is second only to
China in the production of rice.
Grading and Quality
characterized by different factors such as
temperature, climate, requirements, temperature
etc. Due to this there are many varieties of rice
that differentiate from each other on the basis of
the above mentioned. Most of the varieties require
120-150 days (those which are cultivated for
graded into 3 grades
variety - short bold & long bold rice
variety - medium slender rice
variety - long slender & short slender rice
has about 23 species whereas only two are know for
their commercial purposes. The two species are
Oryzae sativa (Asian rice) and Oryzae glaberrima
(African rice). The former specie is
believed to be the
most commonly grown species in the world.
Factors adversely influencing the quality of rice
influencing the price of rice
Policy (especially the export import policy)
demands as well as domestic demand
Rice consumption depends on two factors –
population and income.
Lets take for
example Asia. Rice is the staple food of Asia.
Low-income groups consume more rice according to
the per capita income increase. But as the income
increases, there arrives a point when the
consumption starts to dip. Income growth and
reduction in population result in a low
consumption of rice.
(as a nutrient)
A healthy and balanced diet always includes rice
(in most vegetarian diets). It consists of
carbohydrates, and helps reducing a fat diet.
Nutritional Properties of Rice
in India, and elsewhere in the world
Rice in India
Rice is grown in many regions across India.
For about 65% of the people living in India,
rice is a staple food for them. India alone
has about 45 Million Hectares of Area, and it
produces close to 93 Million Metric Tons of
rice from 2001 onwards. Out of the Indian
states West Bengal is largest in rice
production followed closely by UP and Andhra
Pradesh. Punjab, Orissa and Tamil Nadu are the
other growing states. Value of rice traded in
India is equivalent to Rs. 34,800 crores.
of the total agricultural and crop produce,
rice alone accounts for 42% of this. It
provides employment to 70% of citizens living
stock available in the country is about 30
of Andhra Pradesh is known as Annapurna, and
it is supplied to many other states of India.
of the total area cultivated under cereals,
rice makes up 22% of this.
Rice area in
India was about 2.5 Million Hectares in 1960.
But now it has decreased to app. 2.2 Million
Hectares. Surprisingly the production then was
3.5 Million Tonnes and now it has surged ahead
to 8.2 Million Tonnes. It is also ranked among
the firsts in national productivity.
Rice in the world
110 countries cultivate rice. During the two
previous years, the average rice cultivated
around the world was about 385 Million Metric
Tons. Out of this, 90% is produced in Asia
itself. China and India account for more than
half of the global production.
regions across the globed- Bangladesh,
Thailand, Indonesia, Myanmar and Vietnam.
trade in rice is only 5%. Exports are pegged at a
staggering 25 Metric Tons. About 50% of the rice
grown in the world is consumed on the same farm
where it is actually grown. India has slowly
become one of the main consumer and exporter of
rice in the world.
are four types of rice produced across the world
from tropical and subtropical regions. It is
by far the main type of rice, which accounts
for over 75% of trade.
from cooler climates than subtropical regions.
Japonica registers a 12% of the worldwide
from India and Pakistan. It is the leading
quality of rice in the world and fetches one
of the best export price in cross-country
trade, with it being exported most by India
and followed by Pakistan. It is also called as
the King of Rice, which originally originates
from the Indian Sub-continent.
The latter two account for the remaining % of
the trade. A little part of the remainder is also
made by rice grown in SE Asia.
Main exporters- China, India, Pakistan, Vietnam
Main importers- European countries, Saudi
Arabia, Iraq, South Africa etc.
futures are lots of rice, which are traded. The
time told is somewhere in the future and at a
price both parties agree to.
This system makes it easier for a farmer or
trader/miller of rice to be able to deal in rice
for a specified time period in future (for eg: 6-9
months in advance) But the prices by the
farmer/miller/trader and the second party differ.
Traded mainly in NCDEX, NMCE and MCX (National
Commodity and Derivatives Exchange Ltd.,
National Multi Commodity Exchange of India Ltd.
and Multi Commodity Exchange of India Ltd. respectively.)
contract specifications of rice in various