|Description | Overview |
History | Cultivation pattern |
countries | Indian rape/mustard market |
Major trading centers | Contract
Mustard seeds are yellowish colored, small seeds that are used as
a spice in many countries. These seeds are obtained from bush like
mustard plant that belongs to the genus Brassica that also include
vegetables like cabbage and turnips.
belongs to the plant of the same genus and also known as canola in
many countries. In old English, rapum is a name of the present day
turnip and the name rapeseed is derived from rapum only.
Mustard seed and rapeseed have great importance in many countries
as spices. But, these seeds have important by-products too.
Rapeseeds and mustard seeds are sources of rapeseed/mustard seed
oil and oilcake. Yellow colored oil is obtained by extraction
process of the crushed rape/mustard seeds. In the market, rape oil
is not distinguished from mustard oil as both of these come from
the same species and possess same properties. During the
production of oil, pressed cakes of the seeds are left over that
have some amount of oil content. These cakes are distilled to make
oil cakes, which serves as an animal feed. In the production
process, around 37% oil is yielded and the rest is oil cake.
Mustard and rapeseed production is on a rising. World’s total
production of rapeseed hovers around 40 million tones. Mustard
seed production reached at a figure of 36.54 million tones in
2001-2002. European Union leads the list of rapeseed producing
countries with around 13 million tons of production. The
production of rapeseed oil is around 14 million tons.
As the leading producing countries rapeseed oil usually produce
it to meet their own domestic demand, that’s why the world trade
in this oil is very low as compared to the other edible oils.
Canada is the largest exporter of the mustard and rapeseed seeds
and seed oil. Australia follows Canada in the production of seeds.
The major seed importing countries are Japan and Mexico and US
leads the list of mustard and rapeseed oil importing countries.
Like production, consumption too has been increasing rapidly.
There are countries like China, India, Canada, Japan, Mexico, US
and European Union that consume mustard and rapeseed oil cake
The origin of mustard is not known to the world
but it is said that it grew wild in the northern
hemisphere. It is also said that this plant got
spread through birds, winds and biological
dispersals. The ancient Greeks first started
using mustard to add flavor to their food and
also as drugs. Mustard was not extensively used
until it was brought to Gaul by the Romans and
after that it started gaining importance. French
monasteries started the trading of mustard
With time, many regulations were made
regarding the production of mustard and it
started gaining popularity between the masses
too. It became the primary spice of the early
Europeans. When the spices started coming from
America and Far East, mustard’s popularity
registered a downfall. The house of Maille
observed this downfall and the market for
mustard was revived again. Mustard started
gaining back its importance in Europe and
especially in France. The city of Dijon is known
as the mustard power of the world since then.
Mustard/Rapeseed cultivation is done widely
throughout the world. It is basically a winter
crop and it requires a temperate climate to
prosper. The planting season or the sowing
period in India is during the Rabi season i.e.
October to November. The crop starts flowering
in the months of November, December, January and
February. The harvesting period is from February
to March. It needs a right proportion of
rainfall that is provided by the monsoon during
the sowing seasons of the crop. The
rapeseed/mustard crop is actually acts as a very
good cover of soil in winters.
European Union tops the production chart with
around 13 million tons of production every year.
The maximum area covered under mustard/rape
cultivation is by China, which is also the second
largest producer. Third position is held by India.
Regarding the production of rape/mustard oil,
China holds the first place followed by Germany,
Canada and India.
- United Kingdom
Rape/Mustard in India
- Uttar Pradesh
- Madhya Pradesh
- Jammu and Kashmir
- West Bengal
Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh produce the
major share of rape/mustard contributing to over
50% of the total Indian produce, which stands at
an average of 5 million tons. It also has the
maximum area under cultivation for this crop. In
Rajasthan, the production of this crop is highly
monsoon oriented. The districts in Rajasthan that
produce mustard/rape are Jaipur, Bharatpur, Alwar
It is the major Rabi crop that accounts for almost
65% of the total Rabi produce. Productivity of
this crop has also increased over a period. The
total area under cultivation in India for this
crop has declined over a period of time.
The production of rape/mustard oil cake in India
was 3.4 million tons and of rape/mustard oil was
around 1.5 million tons in 2003-04.
Rape/Mustard has been an important crop to India for a
long period of time. At an average India produces
around 5 million tones of rape/mustard annually. It
stands at the 3rd position in the list of rape/mustard
producing countries contributing around 11% of the
world’s total production. Also it is the third
largest producer of mustard/ rape oil in the world.
Rajasthan is the leading mustard/rape producing state
Mustard oil is consumed wholly in the domestic market.
The demand for the consumption of mustard/rape seed
comes mainly from eastern and northern areas of the
country. The arrival of this crop in the markets is in
its peak period during March to May. The major
centers of consumption of its oil are Kolkata, Bihar,
Jharkhand and the northeastern areas like Assam,
Tripura, Sikkim etc. Two forms of mustard oil are
traded in the Indian market namely Kacchi Ghani and
Pakki Ghani (expeller oil). This industry constitutes
the small-scale sector that markets the oil in loose
form to about 80% and the rest contribution is made by
the organized sector.
India does not imports or exports rape/mustard seeds.
It was not into imports of rape/mustard oil also but
now it has started importing it due to a fall in
production of oil and oil seeds. The oil is not
exported, as it does not match with the international
quality standards. India is an exporter of
mustard/rape oil cake and exports around 4 lakh tons
of cake annually. The countries that import
rape/mustard oil cake from India are: -
Market Influencing Factors
- Prices and demand-supply pattern of other edible
oils in the country and abroad
- Monsoon in the country
- Pests and diseases and other environmental
- Speculation and Hoarding
- Consumption of the by-products
- Production fluctuations
trading centers of rape/mustard
- Winnipeg commodity exchange (Canada)
- Marche A Terme International de France
(Paris Futures Exchange) (France)
- United Kingdom
In India, mustard/rape and its by products are
Hapur (Uttar Pradesh)
Kanpur (Uttar Pradesh)
Kolkata (West Bengal)
Burdwan (West Bengal)
Indore (Madhya Pradesh)
Also, Rape/Mustard is traded in Indian commodity
exchanges namely, National Commodity &
Derivatives Exchange ltd, Multi Commodity Exchange
of India ltd and National Multi Commodity Exchange
of India ltd and National Board of Trade, Indore
specifications of mustard seed/rapeseed and its by-products in
various commodity exchanges
contract specifications of mustard seed/rapeseed in
MCX,NMCE, NCDEX and
contract specifications of mustard/rape oil in MCX, NMCE and NBOT
contract specifications of mustard/rape oil cake in NMCE